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Mor microenvironment and its role in promoting tumor growth. Oncogene. 2008;27(45):5904?2. 52. Zamarron BF, Chen W. Dual roles of immune cells and their factors in cancer development and progression. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7(5):651?. 53. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144(5):646?4. 54. Joven J, Guirro M, Marine-Casado R, Rodriguez-Gallego E, Menendez JA.
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N male rats.Parameter Duration of aggression/sec GROUP Control Leaded gasoline Unleaded gasoline Tooth chattering 0.9 ?0.23 4.7 ?1.1 a** 4.4 ?0.92 a* Threat posture 1.5 ?0.54 6 ?1.2 a* 6.2 ?1.31 a* Leaping and biting 1.9 ?0.72 5.5 ?1.45 5.9 ?1.50 Boxing position 1 ?0.42 2.2 ?0.63 2.2 ?0.Values are expressed as means ?SE a: significantly different from the control group. Asterisks indicate the leve
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Ne groups. On the other hand, no statistical difference was found between the control and the leaded groups. Serotonin content was not affected in all the three experimental groups when comparison was made between each other. In the hypothalamus, data in table 2 reveal that the norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline were lower than those of the control
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Nnervations reaches out to the hypothalamus to regulate secretion of TRH and prolactin secretion, and then projects to the brain limbic system to modulate motivations and emotions [47]. So, gasoline induced impairment of the DA system would result in serious impacts on the neural control of voluntary locomotion and would affect several behavioural aspects.In the present study, the norepinephrine l
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N male rats.Parameter Duration of aggression/sec GROUP Control Leaded gasoline Unleaded gasoline Tooth chattering 0.9 ?0.23 4.7 ?1.1 a** 4.4 ?0.92 a* Threat posture 1.5 ?0.54 6 ?1.2 a* 6.2 ?1.31 a* Leaping and biting 1.9 ?0.72 5.5 ?1.45 5.9 ?1.50 Boxing position 1 ?0.42 2.2 ?0.63 2.2 ?0.Values are expressed as means ?SE a: significantly different from the control group. Asterisks indicate the leve
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Ither the leaded or unleaded group as compared with the control. On the contrary, dopamine was elevated in the cerebellum of leaded exposed group above both the unleaded gasoline and control. The fluctuations in the levels of dopamine in different brain areas may be related to the effects MMT which is an organic manganese (Mn) compound added to unleaded gasoline and the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxic
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Other hand, in the duration of tooth chattering and threat posture were higher than those in the control group. No significant difference was observed between the leaded and unleaded gasoline.Table 3: Effect of chronic exposure to two types of gasoline vapour on the content of monoamines (g/g) in the hippocampus of male ratsParameter GROUP Control Leaded gasoline Unleaded gasoline Norepinephrine 0
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Lusions: Early limited exposure to nitrosamines exacerbates the adverse effects of later chronic high dietary fat intake in promoting T2DM and neurodegeneration. The mechanism involves increased generation of ceramides and probably other toxic lipids in brain.Background The prevalence rates of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabol